- 1. MPL and GPF
- Minimum Proficiency Levels (MPLs)
- Global Proficiency Framework (GPF)
- 2. National Assessment Methodologies
- Statistical Linking
- Non-Statistical Linking
- Additional Assessment Methodology Resources
- 3. Partner Resources
- UNESCO Institute for Statistics
- World Bank
- Learning Data Compact
- Global Partnership for Education
- United Nations Secretary-General
1. MPL and GPF
Minimum Proficiency Levels (MPLs)
The Minimum Proficiency Level (MPL) is the benchmark of basic knowledge in a domain (mathematics, reading, etc.) measured through learning assessments.
Global Proficiency Framework (GPF)
The Global Proficiency Framework, or GPF, describes the specific knowledge and skills that students in grades one to nine should be able to demonstrate in reading and mathematics at their respective grade levels. It differs from the MPLs in that it assigns student mastery a performance level.
Global Proficiency Framework for Reading & Math Toolkit USAID, Aug 2019
2. National Assessment Methodologies
These are methods that can help countries map existing assessment data to regional and international assessment data so that it can be used to report to the 4.1.1 indicator. Examples include:
- Rosetta Stone Study: The Rosetta Stone is a pilot program designed to establish a relationship between existing national and regional assessment data and international assessment scores so that the existing data is relevant to the indicator 4.1.1.
- AMPL: AMPL has 3 modules (AMPL-a, -b, -c), with each measuring 4.1.1 indicators at the following three levels of education (a: Grade 2/3, b: end of primary, c: end of lower secondary). AMPL modules can be administered as standalone assessments or as sections integrated into existing assessments.
Rosetta Stone Study, UNESCO-UIS
MILO: Monitoring Impacts on Learning Outcomes, UNESCO-UIS, 2022
Assessments for MPLs – MILO, UNESCO-UIS
This methodology draws educators, curriculum and subject matter experts together to determine the relationships between existing data and indicator 4.1.1 proficiency levels. Examples of this method are Policy Linking and Pairwise Comparison.
- Policy Linking: This entails training in-country reading and mathematics experts (mainly teachers) to use an internationally approved judgment method to set the minimum score students must achieve to meet the global definition of MPLs.
Policy Linking for Measuring Global Learning Outcomes Toolkit, USAID, March 2021
Draft Criteria for Policy Linking Validity, UNESCO-UIS, January 2020
- Pairwise Comparison: This consists of a group of reading and mathematics experts (mainly teachers) and psychometricians evaluating the difficulty of assessment items but in an independent way.
Additional Assessment Methodology Resources
TIMSS and PIRLS are international assessments that monitor trends in student achievement in mathematics, science, and reading.
PISA is the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment. PISA measures 15-year-olds’ ability to use their reading, mathematics and science knowledge and skills to meet real-life challenges.
Programme for the Analysis of Education Systems (PASEC) is intended for francophone countries in West Africa and measures reading and mathematics at grades 2 and 6. The grade 6 data can be used to report to indicator 4.1.1b.
EQAP administers the Pacific Island Literacy and Numeracy Assessment (PILNA), the Pacific’s largest regional assessment of literacy and numeracy.
The Southeast Asia Primary Learning Metrics (SEA-PLM) is a regional learning assessment and capacity building programme designed by and for Southeast Asian countries to improve relevant and equitable learning outcomes for students in basic education.
The Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Education Quality (SACMEQ) measures reading and mathematics skills at grade 6 and the data can be used to report to indicator 4.1.1b.
3. Partner Resources
UNESCO Institute for Statistics
With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the UIS has been clearly recognised as the “the official source of cross-nationally comparable data on education.”
The World Bank is introducing the concept of Learning Poverty, drawing on new data developed in coordination with the UNESCO Institute for Statistics.
Led by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS), GAML brings together UN member states, international technical expertise, and a full range of implementation partners to improve learning assessment globally.
The Technical Cooperation Group provides a platform to discuss and develop the indicators used to monitor the Education 2030 Agenda in an open, inclusive, and transparent manner.
Learning Data Compact
UNESCO, UNICEF, and the World Bank have joined forces to close the learning data gaps that still exist and that preclude many countries from monitoring the quality of their education systems and assess if their students are learning. The three organizations have agreed to a Learning Data Compact, a commitment to ensure that all countries, especially low-income countries, have at least one quality measure of learning by 2025, supporting coordinated efforts to strengthen national assessment systems.
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has worked closely with UIS and other partners over the past four years to develop the Global Proficiency Framework (GPF) and the Policy Linking Toolkit. An overview of these resources, information (including short videos) summarizing their purposes, the resources themselves, and other related content are available at the links below.
UNICEF focuses on equity and inclusion to provide all children – no matter who they are, where they live or how much money their family has – with quality learning opportunities and skills development programmes, from early childhood through adolescence.
Global Partnership for Education
GPE focuses on providing quality education to children in lower-income countries.
United Nations Secretary-General
The Transforming Education Summit was convened in response to a global crisis in education – one of equity and inclusion, quality and relevance.